Back in "The Day," I seem to remember the goal being some kind of muzzle energy equivalency to a .357 Magnum.
The 10mm started out as the "Super Cooper," a project of Colonel Jeff Cooper. There were various loads worked up until the "Full House" Mid-1980s strength loads were brought out. I seem to remember a downloaded version being popular with the FBI when they adopted the caliber. This led to the shortened .40 Auto load, which has become quite popular.
I will attach a few links. A few folks who are fans of the caliber used to post here and may still be lurking the depths. I hope so, it is a fascinating caliber, and story.