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Hey guys.
I'm very new to shotguns. I just purchased Mossberg 590 and I'm so confused on what ammo to get for home defense. There are too many 12 ga types and I dont know how to read them. Any suggestions would be highly appreciated

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12 gauge for home defense calls for 7 1/2 birdshot which is deadly and reduces over penetration of walls of hallow core doors. I personally load no. 4 buckshot but don't recommend it for new shooters.
 

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Mas Ayoob likes #1 Buck as the best all-around 12 GA SD load.

Personally, I think just about anything that comes roaring out of the maw of a 12 GA will do the job for home defense. I have some slugs and some #00 Buck around here somewhere, but what's on hand for immediate use is a box of #2s--biggest thing I could find cheap locally. Should work fine. I pray I'll never have to find out.
 

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My box of 4 rounds of triple aught has grown legs and walked off. :(
 

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Virtually anything you load into a shotgun has the capability to penetrate drywall and still have sufficient penetration capability to cause serious bodily injury or death*. OTOH, the smaller birdshot sizes (6-9) may not have the capability to rapidly incapacitate a threat. What's the difference? The human ribcage. Birdshot is intended to be used on small, feathered/furry critters with rather fragile bodies. This is not an aggressive human who needs to be rapidly incapacitated.

Buckshot, tactical or regular, would be the preference. Snake's #2s would be about the best choice for bird shot if you can't find buck shot..

*There's a lot of areas of the body where major blood vessels lie in locations where the odd pellet might reach. Those areas generally aren't where one is taught to aim to rapidly incapacitate an attacker.
 
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